Physical examination findings include small size, poor haircoat, and occasional renal enlargement [8]. Ascitis is seen in canines with intrahepatic arteriovenous. ECG bpm. Gracias! AGENTE ETIOLÓGICO Dirofilaria immitis. Asintomático Paciente asintomáticos: Leve perdida de peso. Agitación. Diagnóstico de la dirofilariosis cardiopulmonar canina. Ascitis en un perro con dirofilariosis (Cortesía de J. A. Montoya-Alonso, Facultad de.

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Fri Sep 25, 8: A reasonable package of screening tests recommended asciits an animal suspected of having hepatobiliary disease includes a complete blood count CBCserum canna profile, urinalysis, faecal analysis, survey radiography, and ultrasonography.

Whereas, in congenital extrahepatic portozygos shunt, the shunting vessel runs roughly parallel to and on the left of the abdominal caudal vena cava and could be followed to the diaphragm without communicating with the caudal vena cava [ 21 ].

ascites en caninos pdf

Radiographic examination may be unremarkable or may reveal hepatomegaly. Textbook of Veterinary Diagnostic Radiology. Routine abdominal ultrasonography in canines with portovascular anomalies may demonstrate intrahepatic and extrahepatic shunts with reduced hepatic volume and urinary calculi [ 8 ].

Dogs with cholelithiasis are often asymptomatic and clinical signs jaundice, anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, and dehydration are most likely when cholelithiasis is complicated by bacterial infection, EBDO, perforation of the gall bladder or bile ducts [ 8 ]. The needle is directed perpendicular to the abdominal wall, with care taken to avoid the spleen.

Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

Two-dimensional ultrasonographic acnina scan of right liver lobe in seven-year-old mixed-breed intact male dog showing noncystic cavitary lesions with generalized increase in parenchymal echogenicity. Published online Mar Sonographic features in cases of cirrhosis vary from multiple hepatic nodules from macronodular regeneration besides hyperechoic hepatic parenchyma and decreased liver lobe size [ 12 ] to diffuse qscitis bright but small liver with distended gall bladder and irregular contour [ 1314 ].

The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Ascjtis Besides the presence of multiple portosystemic collateral vessels, ascites, splenomegaly, and an abnormal liver echogenicity, enlarged main portal and extrahepatic portal veins are the associated features with portal hypertension [ 20 ].

Cholecystitis as generalized gall bladder wall thickening is associated with acute pyelonephritis, portal hypertension, chronic renal diseases, and hepatitis [ 24 ]. Caniba or aplasia of intrahepatic portal vasculature could complicate any of these anomalies, but it is rare.


A complete urine analysis including dipstick, specific gravity SGand sediment examination is often required, even if one component part shows no abnormalities [ 2 ]. Analysis of abdominal effusions is ascitls important component of diagnosis.

Coagulation Tests The liver plays a central role in the cannina and fibrinolytic systems, and subtle abnormalities may be detected by assay of individual factor activities. Primary hepatic neoplasia has a variable sonographic appearance ranging from a very large, moderately circumscribed, infiltrating mass bulging beyond the normal liver margins with an echogenicity slightly more mixed than normal liver [ 43 ]. It is seen that laparoscopy provides better liver biopsy tissues than any other traditional percutaneous methods especially when the liver is small [ 1 ].

The diffuse hypoechoic hepatic parenchyma and rounded liver margins with hepatomegaly have been documented in acute hepatic failure as varied sonographic findings ranging from normal to diffusely mottled or decreased echogenicity [ 2326 ] Figure Sonograph 2D in transverse scan showing hyperechoic liver lobe and cholecystitis with inspissated bile in gall bladder GB in a 7-year-old intact Pomeranian male dog.

Cholelithiasis can predispose to cholecystitis by obstructing the cystic duct, causing gallbladder overdistension and stasis, which enables proliferation of anaerobic organisms [ 8 ]. Hughes D, King LG. Compendium of Continuing Education in Cxnina Practice.

The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of asvitis, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. Urinalysis findings reveal bilirubinuria and absence of urobilinogen.

Laparoscopic procurement of liver biopsy right flank approach depicting oval biopsy forceps grasping the hepatic nodule at the edge of right medial liver lobe in 7-year-old male mixed-breed dog with hepatic nodular hyperplasia and radiographic appreciation of pulmonary metastasis.

The coagulation profile should comprise evaluation of buccal mucosal bleeding time, whole blood clotting time, one-stage prothrombin time OSPT or PTand activated partial thromboplastin time aPTT.

Two-dimensional ultrasonographic appearance of liver in sagittal scan depicting hyperechoic parenchyma with rounding of liver lobe surrounded with textured fluid in a 6-year-old male Labrador Retriever affected with infectious peritonitis.


Physical examination findings may show fever, cranial abdominal discomfort, jaundice, hepatomegaly due to bile engorgement, abdominal distension, and shock.

Hepatodynia is a feature with any cause of acute hepatic injury, whereas fever and acute abdominal pain are presenting signs of acute pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, and hepatic abscess [ 89 ].

Whilst a bleeding diathesis will be expected if there is a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, an occult tendency should always be suspected, and a clotting profile is mandatory before a liver biopsy is performed [ 3 ]. In canines with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, no evidence of radiopharmaceutical is detected in the gall bladder or intestine.

For this reason, a battery of tests must be used to diagnose the hepatobiliary affections. Biochemical evidence of concomitant renal failure may be present in acute hepatic failure as sequel to exposure to hepatotoxins e. Doppler imaging confirms the location of the suspicious vessels and direction of the blood flow within and can also provide supportive evidence of intrahepatic portal hypertension by allowing the assessment of the speed and direction of portal flow [ 2 ].

Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

An inflammatory CBC in acute hepatic failure may suggest acute pancreatitis or underlying infectious disease. Clinical Manifestations Age range adcitis affected dogs of either sex is 2 months to 8 years; most are presented when less than 1 year old. It is preferred to percutaneous techniques when excess bleeding is expected and to laparotomy when delayed wound healing hypoalbuminaemia is anticipated.

In addition to this, certain antimicrobial drugs ketoconazole and trimethoprim-sulfaantihelminths mebendazole, diethylcarbamazine-oxybendazole, and thiacetarsamideinhalation anesthetics halothane and methoxyfluraneand analgesics acetaminophen, naproxen, phenylbutazone have also been reported to be hepatotoxic in canines [ 89 ]. Laboratory Evaluation An inflammatory CBC in acute hepatic failure may suggest acute pancreatitis or underlying infectious disease.

In cholecystitis of inflammatory origin, caninna thickened gall bladder wall may be isoechogenic with hepatic parenchyma [ 33 ]. Normal-appearing hepatic angiogram, demonstrating jejunal mesenteric vein normally draining into the portal vein and the extensive portal vein branches in1-year-old male mixed-breed dog.