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gimnaije But from historical point of view it is a serious problem, reflecting the whole range of unsolved national crises, crises of identity, territorial and ethnical feuds. Possible upper time-borders are also, or After negative experience with Hungarian and Austrian authorities, lots of the Serbs, settled in southern Hungary, got back to Turkey, where they found themselves in a better position.

They are usually the only source of information for lots of people, accordingly and most influential. Is it possible to make some conclusions about the people who had adopted only these negative influences? Approaching the end of gimnzzije, I would like to pay attention to efforts aiming to curtail these stereotypes, efforts which give their first results in revision of textbooks, changed views towards the national past, more critical and more historical approach to the problem of Ottoman reign V.

The story never ends! Such situation in politics and historiography is citania ground for speculations and manipulation of these who are used to mythologize, aiming on creation of public consciousness. It also supports the mythical character of the question. Without intention to be cynic or to diminish its importance, it should be honest and confess that, except the general remarks about severity of the Turks, nothing about devshirme is understandable for the students.


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Similar situation repeated when Austria governed northern Serbia The effects of such simplified interpretations are at least expectable and in their basis logical: The guilt for misfortunes and failings is regularly found in cruel otherness. Analysis was made using history textbooks.

Textbooks for the first four grades of elementary education give even more vivid picture of cruel and uncivilized otherness. Jugovic, Istorija srednjeg veka za vise razrede gimnazijeBeograd In some manner the myth presented in this work got an official approve.

Feudal obligations of the raya were, in the beginning, less unbearable than these given to domestic gentlemen in the period before Ottoman conquest. Kuljic, Prevladavanje proslostiBeogradp.

I was in a position to use these materials by kindness of D. Of certain importance is the fact that this textbook gave some remarks which are affirmative for the Ottoman government.

The Turksaccording to common opinion, were not interested in cifanka development of these areas, and if they had done something, they had done it wrongly.

Much more relevant aspect than its chronological and territorial problem is its substance. Ottoman Empire is presented as unstable state, descending into corruption, with permanent aggravation of a position of the Christians.

Školski pribor

Lukic, Poznavanje drustva, udzbenik za V razred osnovne sk ole, Beograd It remains, as dominant idea, that historiography is gimnaije discipline, aiming in producing patriotic emotions. Such ignorance is not regarded as a problem, because there are poetic descriptions of event, just enough to replace the lack of knowledge. See references in the end of the text.


Of course, it cannot be explicitly presented in History textbooks, but what happens, for instance, in Geography textbook [12] for III grade of gymnasium, which is my favorite one? Istorija Osmanskog Carstvaed.

Čitanka za 3. razred gimnazije – Google Books

If accepted, these interpretations introduce one logical question: Following simplified pattern of political, cultural, and economic backwardness, corruption and anarchy, all textbooks support the idea that the Ottomans disabled development of the Serbs for centurieswhile other European peoples were developing their culture and economy.

Thus, the myth is born: All these questions are involved with or without serious reason in this problem, involved by historians, politicians, scientists, common people making almost inevitable the fact that it is impossible to make chronological frame within could be precisely defined duration of Ottoman period of Serbian history. According to one it was every year, another believes that it was in every fifth, and maybe in every seventh year. In a few words, it is completely unsure how many years the Ottomans ruled over the Serbs?

First edition M.