El funcionamiento del cerebro y el misterio de la conciencia humana son dos de los asuntos más importantes con los que deben enfrentarse la filosofía y la. El Misterio de La Conciencia: John Searle: Books – Get this from a library! El misterio de la conciencia. [John R Searle; Antoni Domenech Figueras; Daniel Clement Dennett; David John Chalmers].
Widely noted for his contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and social philosophy, he began teaching at Berkeley inwhere, among his many distinctions, he was the first tenured professor to join the Free Speech Movement. I think that’s in general a feature of intellectually active places. In many of these discussions one finds a lot of fancy footwork about the word “understanding. Let us call this the axiom of existence. While a professor mizterio Berkeley inhe joined the Free Speech Movement opposing policies of the university administration.
Later, inhe sided with the administration against the students over People’s Park.
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He authored The Campus War: A Sympathetic Look at the University in Agony In it, Searle notes: Stylistically, the attacks are interestingly similar. Both rely heavily on insinuation and innuendo, and both display a hatred — one might almost say terror — of close analysis and dissection of argument.
Searle owns a large concciencia of property in Berkeley, California. In the s he filed a lawsuit which led the California Supreme Court to overturn the city’s rent control policy, in what came to be known as the “Searle Decision”.
The city government claimed this led to “significantly increased rent levels in Berkeley”. He attempted to synthesize ideas from many colleagues including J. Austin the term “illocutionary act”Ludwig Wittgenstein the observation that linguistic meaning sezrle “rule-governed”G. Midgley the distinction between regulative and constitutive rulesand his own thesis, in ‘Speech Acts,’ that such acts are constituted by the rules of language.
He also drew on the work of P. Strawson, John Rawls, and H. Paul Grice the analysis of meaning as an attempt at being understoodHare and Stenius the distinction, concerning meaning, between illocutionary force and propositional contentand William P. Alston, who maintained that sentence meaning consists in sets of regulative rules requiring the speaker to perform the illocutionary act indicated by the sentence, and that such acts involve the utterance of a sentence which a indicates that one performs the act, b means what one says, and c addresses an audience in the vicinity.
In his book Speech ActsSearle conciencis out to combine all of these elements to give an account of so-called ‘illocutionary acts’, which Austin had introduced in How To Do Things with Words. Despite his announced intention54 to present a “full dress analysis of the illocutionary act,” Searle in fact does not give one.
Instead, he provides an analysis of the allegedly prototypical illocutionary act of promising, and offers sets of semantical rules intended to represent the linguistic meaning of devices indicating further supposed illocutionary act types Among the concepts presented in the book is mistero distinction between the ‘illocutionary force’ and the ‘propositional content’ of an utterance.
Searle does not precisely define the former as such, but rather introduces several possible illocutionary forces by example. According to Searle, the sentences: Does Sam smoke habitually?
Would that Sam smoked habitually! According to a later account which Searle presents in Intentionality esarle which differs in important ways from the one suggested in Speech Actsillocutionary acts are characterised by their having conditions ssearle satisfaction as idea adopted from Strawson’s paper “Meaning and Truth” and a direction of fit an idea adopted from Elizabeth Anscombe.
For example, the statement “John bought two candy bars” is satisfied if and only if it is true, i.
John did buy two candy bars. By contrast, the command “John, buy two candy bars” is satisfied if and only if John carries out the action of purchasing two candy bars. Searle refers to the first as having the word-to-world direction of fit, since the words are supposed to change to accurately represent the world, and the second as having the world-to-word direction of fit, since the world is supposed to change to match the words.
There is sesrle the double direction of fit, in which the relationship goes both ways, and the searel or conciiencia direction of fit, in which it goes neither way because the propositional content is presupposed, as in “I’m sorry I ate John’s candy bars. A wide-ranging critique is offered by F. Collections of articles referring to Searle’s account are found in: For a debate which became famous see Jacques Derrida’s Limited Inc.
Intentionality and the Background In Intentionality: An Essay in the Philosophy of MindSearle sets out to apply certain elements of his account s of “illocutionary acts” to the investigation of intentionality. Searle also introduces a technical term the Backgroundwhich, according to him, has been the source of much philosophical discussion “though I have been arguing for this thesis for almost twenty years,” Searle writes, “many people whose opinions I respect still disagree with me about it.
Thus, when someone asks us to “cut the cake” we know to use a knife and when someone asks us to “cut the grass” we know to use concienciz lawnmower and not vice versaeven though the actual request did not sear,e this detail. Searle sometimes supplements his reference to the Background with the concept of the Networkone’s network of other beliefs, desires, and other intentional states necessary for any particular intentional state to make sense.
Searle argues that the concept of a Background is similar to the concepts provided by several other thinkers, including Wittgenstein’s private language argument “the work of the later Wittgenstein is in large part about the Background” cconciencia Bourdieu’s habitus. To give an example, two chess players might be engaged in a bitter struggle at the board, but they share all sorts of Background presuppositions: As most of these cocniencia won’t have occurred to either player, Searle thinks the Background must be unconscious, though elements of it can be called to consciousness if the fire alarm does go off, say.
Consciousness Building upon his views about Intentionality, Searle presents a view concerning consciousness in his book The Rediscovery of the Mind He argues that, starting with behaviorism an early but influential scientific view, succeeded by many later accounts that Searle also dismissesmuch of modern philosophy has tried to laa the existence of consciousness, with little success.
In Intentionalitycobciencia parodies several alternative theories of consciousness by replacing their accounts of intentionality with comparable accounts of the hand: No one would think of saying, conciencis example, “Having a hand is just being disposed to certain sorts of behavior such as grasping” manual behaviorismor “Hands can be defined entirely in terms of their causes and effects” manual sesrleor “For a system to have a hand is just for it to be in a certain computer state with the right sorts of inputs and outputs” manual Turing machine functionalismor “Saying that a system has hands is just adopting a certain stance toward it” the manual stance.
Searle says simply that both are true: A view which he suggests might be called biological naturalism. searrle
Ontological subjectivity Searle has argued that critics like Daniel Dennett, who he claims insist that discussing subjectivity is unscientific because science presupposes objectivity, are making a category error. Perhaps the goal of science is to establish and validate statements which are epistemically objective, i.
Searle calls any value judgment epistemically subjective. Thus, “McKinley is prettier than Everest” is epistemically subjective, whereas “McKinley is higher than Everest” is epistemically objective. In other words, the latter statement is evaluable in fact, falsifiable by an understood ‘background’ criterion for mountain height, like ‘the summit is so many meters above sea level’.
No such criteria exist for prettiness. Beyond this distinction, Searle thinks there are certain phenomena including all conscious experiences which are ontologically subjective, i. For example, although it might be subjective or objective in the epistemic sense, a doctor’s note that a patient suffers from back pain is an ontologically objective claim: But the pain itself is ontologically subjective: Searle goes on to affirm that “where consciousness is concerned, the appearance is the reality”.
Artificial intelligence A consequence of biological naturalism is that if we want to create a conscious being, we will have to duplicate whatever physical processes the brain goes through to cause consciousness. Searle thereby means to contradict to what he calls “Strong AI”, defined by the assumption that as soon as a certain kind of software is running on a computer, a conscious being is thereby created. InSearle presented the “Chinese room” argument, which purports to prove the falsity of strong AI.
El misterio de la conciencia: John R. Searle, Antoni DomÃ¨nech Figueras: : Books
Familiarity with the Turing test is useful for understanding the issue. Assume you do not speak Chinese and imagine yourself in a room with two slits, a book, and some scratch paper.
Someone slides you some Chinese characters through the first slit, you follow the instructions in the book, write what it says on the scratch paper, and slide the resulting sheet out the second slit. To people on the outside world, it appears the room speaks Chinese This suggests, according to Searle, somehow that no computer can ever understand Chinese or English, because, as the thought experiment suggests, being able to ‘translate’ Chinese into English does not entail ‘understanding’ either Chinese or English: Stevan Harnad argues that Searle’s “Strong AI” is really just another name concienciw functionalism and computationalism, and that these positions are the real targets of his critique.
Functionalists claim that consciousness can be defined as a set of informational processes inside the brain. It follows that anything that carries out the same informational processes as a human is also conscious. Thus, if we wrote miisterio computer program that was conscious, we could run that computer program on, say, a system of ping-pong balls and beer cups and the system would be equally conscious, because it was running the same information processes.
Searle argues that this is impossible, since consciousness is a physical property, like digestion or fire. No matter how good a simulation of digestion you build on the computer, it will not digest anything; no matter searke well you simulate fire, nothing will get burnt.
By contrast, informational processes are observer-relative: Since they do not exist at a physical level, Searle argues, they cannot have causal efficacy and thus cannot cause consciousness. There is no physical law, Searle insists, that can see the equivalence between a personal computer, a series of ping-pong balls and beer cans, and a pipe-and-water system all implementing the same program. Social reality Searle extended his inquiries into observer-relative phenomena by trying to understand social reality.
Searle begins by arguing collective intentionality e. Searle’s The Construction of Social Reality addresses the mystery of how social constructs like misterjo or “money” can exist in a world consisting only of physical particles in fields of force.
Adapting an idea by Elizabeth Anscombe in “On Brute Facts,” Searle distinguishes between brute factslike the height of misherio mountain, and institutional factslike the score of a baseball game. Aiming at an explanation of social phenomena in terms of Anscombe’s notion, he argues that society can be explained in terms of institutional facts, and institutional facts arise out of collective intentionality through logical rules of msiterio form “X counts as Y in C”.
Thus, cknciencia instance, filling out a ballot counts as a vote in a polling place, getting so many votes counts as a mosterio in an election, getting a victory counts as being elected president in the presidential race, etc. Rationality In Rationality in ActionSearle argues that standard searlf of rationality are badly flawed.
According to what he calls the Classical Model, rationality is seen as something like a train track: Searle doubts this picture of rationality holds generally.
Searle briefly critiques one particular set of these rules: He points out that its axioms require that anyone who valued a quarter and their life would, at some odds, bet their life for a quarter. Searle insists he would never do this hohn believes that this is perfectly rational. Yet most of his attack is directed against the common joyn of rationality, which he believes is badly flawed. First, he argues that reasons don’t cause you to do anything, because having sufficient reason wills but doesn’t force you to do that thing.
So in johnn decision situation we experience a gap between our reasons and our actions.
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