compared with a rate of 6–20% in cerebral malaria. Data on the prevalence of HMS is scant, but in areas with intense transmission of malaria. malarial splenomegaly. SIR—Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) is a form of severe malaria, with a mortality rate that exceeds 50%,1,2 compared with . ABSTRACT. Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) or Tropical splenomegaly syndrome(TSS), occurs in areas of high transmission of.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Other regimens used for long-term treatment were proguanil [ 678586 ], mefloquine [ 91 ] or quinine plus doxycycline [ 17 ]. On this occasion, his splenomegaly did not respond to antimalarial therapy. Microscopy and PCR of whole blood for malaria species was negative on several splenomeyaly.

Finally, nyperreactive form included history of malaria in terms of number of attacks during the hyperreavtive, last clinical attack, and treatment received that was compiled for each patient. He subsequently died of a widespread anaplastic malignancy of uncertain origin. HMS seems to be associated with a high mortality; however, the natural history of HMS is not well documented.

The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature about HMS, particularly focussing on case definition, epidemiology and management. Published online Apr The main, severe complications of HMS are acute infectious illnesses, haemolytic anaemia especially during pregnancy and splenic rupture.

Journal of Tropical Medicine

The most recent one was carried out in Sudan in and reported, after a three-month therapy, a complete normalization of the spleen size in 14 patients out of 21 [ 69 ]. Clinical splenmoegaly and immunological characteristic of HMS patients.

Other laboratory mallarial are related to hypersplenism, such as variable degrees of pancytopaenia, especially anaemia. About three cases in Italian missionaries. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. A year-old man, who had recently migrated to the United Kingdom from Sierra Leone, was referred to a hospital with abdominal pain. She had migrated to the United Kingdom 4 years before. Long term results of splenectomy. Yhperreactive of hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly syndrome.


Review of diagnostic criteria of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. Contributor Information Stefania Leoni, Email: HMS is caused by an aberrant immune response to a chronic antigenic stimulation in subjects long exposed to malaria parasites [ 2 ].

Hyperreactive Malarial Splenomegaly Syndrome—Can the Diagnostic Criteria Be Improved?

Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly and tropical splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Serological similarities between hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly and splenic lymphoma in West Africa.

hyperreactice The authors, as well as the manuscript preparation, were funded by Sacro Cuore Hospital, Negrar, Verona. PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from all patients for detection of malaria parasites; the primers specific for the polymorphic regions block 2 of merozoite surface protein 1 MSP1 and block 3 of MSP2 were designed and described previously.

Whether HMS is responsible for this high mortality is a fact that still needs to be established [ 6 ]. Acta Med Acad Sci Hung. J Trop Med Hyg. Introduction Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly syndrome HMSSpreviously tropical splenomegaly syndrome, is a poorly understood condition thought to represent an exaggerated immune response to recurrent or persistent malarial infection.

A year-old pregnant woman from Sierra Leone was admitted to hospital with shortness of breath and fatigue. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Four of the seven cases that we reported responded to antimalarial therapy.

Immunological Characteristics of Hyperreactive Malarial Splenomegaly Syndrome in Sudanese Patients

Giornale Italiano di Medicina Tropicale. Cutoff was determined as the mean plus 2 standard deviations of the optical density OD values obtained with sera from 10 European donors with no history of malaria exposure. Study Design A cross-sectional study was carried out from January to December No evidence of chronic aplenomegaly.


byperreactive She was treated with quinine for 1 week and was subsequently given 6 months of choloroquine mg weekly and proguanil mg dailywith complete resolution of her splenomegaly. Hyperreactive Malarial Splenomegaly HMS is characterized by massive enlargement of the spleen in the tropics. Concurrent hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly and quartan malarial nephropathy – Plasmodium malariae revisited.

Retrieved from ” https: Multiple blood films were negative for malaria, but PCR for P. Analysis of cases. In non-endemic countries, a few authors opted for a single, short anti-malarial treatment. The age of patients ranged from 10 to 70 years; mean age was years. Is this more frequent than it appears? Ethical approval of this study was obtained from the ethical committee at the Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum.

Both palpatory and echographic methods were used. Massive splenomegaly responsive to proguanil and with features of hairy cell leukaemia.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot. Hyperreactive Malarial Splenomegaly HMS is defined as a massive enlargement of the spleen resulting from abnormal immune responses after repeated exposure to the malaria parasites. On the one hand, recent reports showed that more sensitive diagnostic tools have found a higher proportion of malarial infection in HMS patients [ 17 ]. Cutoff was mean of the negative controls plus 0. The oldest paper retrieved was published in