Folliculogenesis and oogenesis are important events preceding the release of the mature oocyte (ovulation), as well as for in vitro oocyte maturation, which is. Drosophila oogenesis is an excellent system for the study of developmental cell biology. Active areas of research include stem cell. Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis. Pgs. (Campbell). Spermatogenesis. Production of sperm. Continuous and prolific; Each ejaculation.
Characterization and relationship of Dpp receptors encoded by the saxophone and thick veins genes in Drosophila. Two groups of 65—80 follicle cells in the anterior, dorsal domain form specialized eggshell structures called dorsal appendages that facilitate gas exchange during embryogenesis. Incomplete cytokinesis in these divisions leaves intercellular bridges that are later stabilized olgenesis the accumulation of filamentous actin to form ring canals that persist until the end of oogenesis.
This research takes advantage of powerful genetic and cytological tools developed over many years.
Most of this time is needed for previtellogenic egg chamber development during stages 2—8, when oocyte growth is mediated entirely by ooegnesis movement of cytoplasm from nurse cells to the oocyte through ring canals. Autosomal P[ovoD1] dominant female-sterile insertions in Drosophila and their use in generating germ-line chimeras. We anticipate that further improvements in live cell imaging methods combined with new genetic analysis tools will lead to many additional insights into the molecular mechanisms of ovarian development.
Diversity of cell death pathways: Identifying mutant germline mosaics can be done genetically using Dominant Female Sterile DFS method or visually using reporters.
More recently, a novel transgenic RNAi system has been developed that allows potent gene silencing in all cell types, including ovarian germ cells [ 79 ]. Oogenesis in Drosophila [ 12 ] supports an impressively high level of fecundity. Mosaic analysis While female-sterile screens succeeded in isolating many genes that are critical for female fertility, the majority of genes that function in oogenesis are essential genes for which loss of function mutations do not produce a female-sterile phenotype.
The wild-type chromosome typically includes a marker or reporter gene to allow for identification of recombined cells Figure 2. Nat Methods Nature Publishing Group.
Methods for studying oogenesis
Thus, the germarium contains two types of stem cells maintained in separate niches whose division rates must be coordinated oogeneiss produce cells necessary for egg chamber production. Localization, anchoring and translational control of oskar, gurken, bicoid and nanos mRNA during Drosophila oogenesis. Table 1 Commonly used Gal4 lines. Moderate expression in germline stage 8 and later.
Pole cell transplantation Primordial germ cells form early in embryonic development and are the first embryonic cells to undergo cellularization. Low to moderate levels throughout oogenesis; may taper in later stages. A dynamic population of stromal cells contributes to the follicle stem cell niche in the Drosophila ovary.
The Davis lab has published a brief but useful guide on choosing imaging systems that are well suited for Drosophila oogenesis [ ]. Davis I, Parton RM. Mazzalupo S, Cooley L. The movement and anchoring of these maternal mRNAs are active areas of research that benefit from the ability to do live-cell imaging to reveal conserved mechanisms of mRNA localization [ 2526 ].
The actin cables prevent nurse cell nuclei from being squeezed into ring canals where they would block the flow of cytoplasm to the oocyte.
The dynamics of fluorescently labeled endogenous gurken mRNA in Drosophila. Only one of the 16 germline-derived cells develops into an oocyte while the remaining 15 differentiate into nurse cells with polyploid nuclei. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging.
Sex determination in germ line chimeras of Drosophila melanogaster. However, using the right UAS vector is critical.
While the FLP-DFS system is an oogeenesis means of generating late-stage germline clones, it is not useful for identifying germline clones during early oogenesis or for identifying clones in somatic cells. Microtubules Preservation and efficient immunolabeling of the microtubule cytoskeleton can be challenging.
Examination of egg chamber assembly carried out in many laboratories has yielded a huge amount of information on stem cell and stem cell niche biology [ 78 ] and the origins of polarity [ 9 ]. The border cells participate in forming the micropyle through which a sperm reaches the oocyte.
The development and function of the female germ line in Drosophila melanogaster:
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