Ledinegg Instability. Figure 1: Sketch illustrating the Ledinegg instability. Two- phase flows can exhibit a range of instabilities. Usually, however, the instability is . will focus on internal flow systems and the multiphase flow instabilities that occur in . Ledinegg instability (Ledinegg ) which is depicted in figure This. Ledinegg instability In fluid dynamics, the Ledinegg instability occurs in two- phase flow, especially in a boiler tube, when the boiling boundary is within the tube.

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This depends on the relative importance of the respective components of pressure drop such as gravity or frictional losses in the system.

Instability can also disturb control systems and cause operational problems in nuclear reactors. Numerical predictions from the developed pressure gradient model agree well with results from the flow boiling experiments.

In view of this, more research needs to be conducted to explore the capability of existing mathematical models for prediction of these instabilities in NCSs in future. System stability is determined by solving for the roots, s, of Equation 6. A typical case is the neutronic feedback responding to the void fluctuations resulting in both flow and power oscillations in a BWR. Besides, it considers equilibrium phasic temperature as in case of homogeneous model.

If the quality is disturbed by a small amount, the void fraction with smaller drift velocity can have larger fluctuation than the other due to larger slope of void fraction versus quality. Thermal oscillations are considered as a regular feature of dryout of steam-water mixtures at high pressure [ 4 ]. While classifying instabilities of NCSs, a need was felt to consider the instabilities associated with single-phase condition, boiling inception, and two-phase condition separately as a natural circulation system progresses through all these stages before reaching the fully developed two-phase circulation.

Heat exchanger topic Tubular heat exchanger A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. Boiler tubes normally overcome this which is effectively a ‘negative resistance’ regime by incorporating a narrow orifice at the entry, to give a stabilising pressure drop on entry. Several decades have been spent on the study of flow instabilities in boiling two-phase natural circulation systems. Occurrence of out of phase oscillations is characteristic of PCI.


In addition, in many oscillatory conditions, secondary phenomena get excited and they modify significantly the characteristics of the fundamental instability. Because of this, any disturbance in the driving force affects the flow which in turn influences the driving force leading to an oscillatory behavior even in cases where eventually a steady state is expected.

Two-Phase Instabilities

In such cases, even the prediction of the instability threshold may require consideration of the secondary effect compound dynamic instability. Cold water injection can also cause a major disturbance and instability in natural circulation systems.

When the heat flux is such that boiling is initiated at the heater exit and as the bubbles begin to move up the riser they experience sudden enlargement due to the decrease in static pressure and the accompanying vapor generation, instabbility resulting in vapor expulsion from the channel. If only one instability mechanism is at work, it is said to be fundamental or pure instability.

Ledinegg instability – Wikipedia

In such cases, pressurised water is passed through heated pipes and it changes to steam as it moves through the pipe. Commonly observed, static instabilities are flow excursion and boiling crisis. Under the circumstances, it looks relevant to classify instabilities into various categories which will help in improving our understanding and hence control of these instabilities. However, with a relatively stiff system, the frequency of PDO can be comparable to DWO making it difficult to distinguish between the two.

Usually, the homogeneous model predicts a larger void fraction than the two-fluid model for the same mixture quality due to the absence of slip between the water and steam in this model. In general, instabilities can be classified according to various bases as follows:.


Krishnan and Gulshani [ 16 ] observed such instability in a figure-of-eight loop.

During thermal oscillations, dryout or CHF point shift downstream or upstream depending on the flow oscillations. This will not be confused with the premature occurrence of CHF during an oscillating flow, in which case the oscillations occur first followed by CHF see Figure 9 b. DWO occurs at flow rates lower than the flow rate at which pressure-drop oscillation is observed. The instwbility of the instability depends on the perturbed pressure drop in the two-phase and single-phase regions of the system and the propagation time delay of the void fraction or density in the system.

Fukuda and Kobori [ 5 ] have classified the density-wave instability as type I and type II for the low power and high-power instabilities, respectively. Neither the cause nor the threshold of instability of such systems can be predicted purely from the steady state equations alone. Limited studies by Nayak et al. If we have any complex roots s having positive real parts the system is unstable.

However, a common requirement for geysering is again a tall riser at the exit of the heated section.

Ledinegg instability in microchannels — Arizona State University

This is true both for instabilitg I and type II instabilities. Similarly, any slight disturbance causing the flow rate to decrease will shift the operating point to B and then to point A. We note that case 3 is unstable while case 4 is stable. As the flow area is increased, the flow rate increases, which gives rise to small frequency oscillations, typical of low quality type I density-wave instability Figure 19 due to reduction in void fraction.